�9�7��o~c�����o����v��{8`-3�N���.^%��=y`�` Ar�W|�z��D}�M����W��q���z��~)q(�f�)]�ݴ3�;ۧov����ޜi��#�U���k���(އ� ����֔�D#��w���Fy?��r�`G�fb)�N�����_nv�oK׿�vX�_R�?��W�?ꂏ4�"Xe�Sd}��U���6�Y�����ap��J����+�@j�4��! The Authors. A binary logistic regression was used to identify the significant predictors of older Malaysians participating in the labour market after controlling for key demographic, health and socio-economic, geographical and intergenerational support variables. The study concludes that green spaces provision in a residential area act as a viable support system underlined the economic, social, and environment interaction. Policy Exchange, September 19, 2013, Beijing, China. Since then my moments of “engagement” with Malaysia have been brief although I … Surprisingly, co-residence was not a statistically significant factor. stream Geol., 4: 212-223. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the demographics and injury risks of MOH healthcare workers involved in traffic accident. A total of 286 households were conveniently selected. <> These findings help policymakers and local support groups in improving the current policies and to enhance the quality of life of the urban poor. The Indonesian government does not sufficiently protect its citizens. This concept paper has several objectives: A brief description of the country's nature of poverty, poverty reduction policies and programs, and an analysis facing the challenges and recommendations for a sustainable poverty reduction in Malaysia. Crime and Urbanization in Malaysia: Types and Cause “Crime affects all Malaysian, irrespective of race, religion, gender or income levels…†. Older people in rural areas were generally those with less income, lower educational attainment and lower healthcare utilisation, the latter of which resulted in more health problems compared to urban residents (Selvaratnam and Poo, 2007;Mohd Nor and Said, 2014;Barbosa et al., 2015). Int. 4! J. Geogr. Most (65.5%) clean toilets daily. This study aims to assess the trends in urban poverty and urbanization in Malaysia during 1970-2012. before and after Malaya achieved independence From results of this study, he found that rapidpopulation growth in urban areas of Malaysia occurred last nine decades especially during the 1980s and 1990s because the urbanization level in Malaysia rose about 18.4 percent from 1911 to 1970 and roe again However, rapid urbanization Econ., 24: 1524-1535. International Islamic University Malaysia 53100 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Email : ssyafiee@iiu.edu.my Phone : 603 20565280 Fax : 603 20564864 ABSTRACT Rapid urbanization during the 1970’s and 1980’s has shown greater impact to urban and housing development in Kuala Lumpur from the previous era. Main method of rubbish disposal is by burning. Urban agriculture is an initiative in overcoming the impact of food insecurity. Wrote PhD thesis on Sustainability Practices of Palm Oil Milling Sector in Peninsular Malaysia. This research has offered an insight into the complex relationship between working in later life and supporting one’s family among older people in Malaysia. KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia will ensure public policies, including urban and regional plans, continue to serve economic growth while protecting natural and agricultural land use. 1. It was fou, in urban poverty during the last three decades. Malaysia. However, outcomes that are eventually produced should be Malaysia’s census report, urbanization increases from 25% I 1960 to 65% in 2005 and 3 quarters . The results showed that respondents who were older, female, and either married or widowed were less likely to participate in the labour market than their counterparts. Most (91.8%) shower at least twice daily and brush their teeth at least twice daily.Conclusions: This rural community practices appropriate personal hygiene in line with the cultural norms and they have good sanitation. designer’s role in social innovation. Urbanization in Northern Corridor Economic Region in Malaysia. environmental deterioration, pollution, congestion, effectiveness of specific programs as well as design and best. ... is a federation of thirteen states, eleven of which are located on the peninsular mainland and an additional two on the island of Borneo (Malaysian Investment Development Authority, 2019). This study employs a systematic literature review by three phases of identification, screening, and eligibility. were ups and downs in poverty incidence in each stratum. urbanization in Malaysia; these are: natural increase, rural-urban migration with the policies ! Urbanization is a continuous population concentration process in the city and metropolitan areas which plays an important role in the development and modernization of society (United Nations, 1987). initiatives in the Asia-Pacific region. is framed in academic discourse and how it is perceived by various groups of This statement quoted from YB Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein, Minister of Home Affairs in his opening remarks of the chapter 6 on Reducing Crime in GTP Roadmap. Malaysian cities representing each region in Peninsular Malaysia. Investigating the link between urbanization growth and CO 2 emissions is necessary and helpful for Malaysia to achieve its pollution reduction targets. Malaysia has experienced spectacular urban spatial transformations from 1970 to 1997. urbanization causes vulnerability among the urban dwellers. These findings have important implications for Malaysian old age policy and its effort to promote productive ageing through employment opportunities, which can ensure continued independence in old age, while acknowledging the importance of family support on preserving the welfare of older people in Malaysia.
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urbanization in malaysia pdf

December 30, 2020    

Int. Apart from W. P. Kuala Lumpur and W. P. Putrajaya with 100 per cent level in urbanisation, the other states with high level of urbanisation were Selangor and Pulau Pinang with 91.4 per cent and 90.8 per cent respectively (Chart 6). It is also notable for being ranked the No. Natural increase refers to the natural population growth that the country experiences. urbanization, and pro-regime voting in Malaysia's 2013 general election is an important contribution to contemporary Malaysian political studies. The rate of urbanization in Malaysia is on the increase, from about 25% in 1960 to 65% in 2005 and is expected to exceed 70% by 2020. 88 Journal of Sociology and Social Work, Vol. 1 country outside Japan where Japanese Median household income ranged from RM1000 to RM2000. For inquiries, contact: The ASEAN Secretariat Community Relations Division (CRD) 70A Jalan Sisingamangaraja Jakarta 12110 Indonesia Phone : (62 21) 724-3372, 726-2991 Fax : (62 21) 739-8234, 724-3504 E-mail : public@asean.org Finally, the findings indicated significant differences between income poor status groups and different level in well-being poor groups. PUTRAJAYA:Based on a projection by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Desa), it is estimated that Malaysia’s population, similar to the rest of the world, will increase exponentially within three decades. It is influenced by macro factors of economic development such as income, informal economy, land use policy, and transportation cost (Seto et al., 2011).In details, rapid urban land expansion is seen as a significant threat to human survival and well-being (Szabo, 2015)that leads to the incidence of urban poverty. 1: Trends of poverty incidence in Malaysia (1970-2012), Fig. To monitor the water quality parameters under different ponds at Rajshahi district. ... Other factors that significantly and positively impact on urbanization are industrialization and education. do practitioners need to create enabling ecosystems for the communities they intend to Urbanization is found to have a positive and significant influence on GDP in the short but in the long run the impact is not significant. The rate of urbanization in Malaysia has been very rapid since the 1970s. All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files. Background: The concept of hygiene varies amongst individuals and amongst cultures. %�쏢 Instead of solely This article presents the relationship between community resilience and urban agriculture as a strategy for food and nutrition security forthe vulnerable urban group. Data was taken from the Official Poverty Line Survey conducted in four, Large numbers of Indonesian women seek employment as domestic workers in Malaysia in order to escape poverty and unemployment. In fact, the former is caused by the latter. Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. The changes can be seen through the increase of 55% world population, particularly in urban areas from 751 million in 1950 to 6.7 billion in 2050 (United Nations, 2018b).The increase is subjected to the natural population growth, local and international migration, and expansion of urban settlement (Siwar et al., 2016;United Nations, 2018a).Among those factors, the projection of urban land expansion for the creation of the built environment is expected to the loss of 1.8 to 2.4% global agricultural land by 2030(d' Amour et al., 2017).With 60% of the agricultural land situated in the peri-urban area, such a situation nonetheless creates competitive land use between agriculture and urban usage. 5 0 obj Further results revealed a positive but small relationship between household percapita income and well-being among vulnerable households. 3: Trend of urbanization in Malaysia (1980-2010), (Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2011), Table 3: Rural-urban distribution of population in Malaysia (1970-2010), Source: (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2011), Malaysia during the last few decades has been characterized, policies by allowing firms to locate their activities in and, around Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the country. Rev. Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti, Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM 43600, Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia, School of International Studies (SOIS), College of Law, Governme, nt and International Studies (COLGIS), Universiti Utara Malays, S ch oo l of E co n om i cs , F i na n ce a nd Ba n ki ng ( SE FB ) , C ol l eg e of Bu si n es s ( C OB ), U ni ve r si ti U ta ra M al ay s ia (U U M) , Si n to k 06 01 0 , K e da, as an increasingly visible phenomenon due to, Urban poverty, urbanization, income inequality, vulnerability, Malaysia, Ferdoushi Ahmed, Institute for Environment and Development (LE, STARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM. Furthermore, respondents with a higher education, those who experienced greater difficulty in daily living and those who lived with more health problems were less likely to be in the labour market than the reference group. The four themes produced a total of 14 sub-themes in detailing the element of food security and development strategy of urban agriculture programs for community resilience. Penang, Malaysia. Ninety Years of Urbanization in Malaysia: A Geographical Investigation of Its Trends and Characteristics Usman Yaakob*, Tarmiji Masron* & Fujimaki Masami** Abstract This paper discusses the urbanization process in Malaysia from 1911 to 2000. It can thus be suggested that older people in rural areas were compelled to work in order to sustain their lives in old age (Selvaratnam and Poo, 2007). The definition of urban areas in Malaysia is gazetted areas with a population of 10,000 or more. During the Malaysia’s ninth five-year plan period (2010-2015), the government The authors (hereafter NRVP) use advanced statistical techniques toes­ timate the relationships between ethnic population totals, urbanization, Four main themes emerged consist of food security, food production, food flow, and resilience strategy. The empirical investigation started with unit root tests using both ADF and Phillips-Perron. Findings indicated significant differences in household percapita income (HHPCI) among income poverty status groups and significant differences in well-being among different status of income poverty, whereby the non-poor had the highest mean in both (HHPCI & well-being). Urbanization is a phenomenon of economic and social modernization. Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business, Urban Food Insecurity: The relationship between community resilience and urban agriculture, The relationship between intergenerational transfers, co-residence and labour participation among older people in Malaysia, Urbanization and Economic Growth in Nigeria: An Application of ARDL Bounds Testing Approach, Reorienting and Sustaining Design and Social Innovation: Insights from Asia-Pacific Practices, Systematic Literature Review of Urban Poor Livelihoods in Malaysia, Personal hygiene and sanitation in a rural community in Kedah, Urban Agriculture as a Community Resilience Strategy against Urban Food Insecurity, COMMUNITY-BASED ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF MYVILLAGE MY FUTURE INITIATIVE: A CASE STUDY OF KAMPUNGKUNDUR HULU, ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF COMMUTING INJURY AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN MALAYSIA 2014-2016, Probing the Influence of Internet of Things (IOT) Usage on the Grassroots Innovators’ Sustainability: A Malaysian Perspective, Title: Environmental Sustainability of oil palm cultivation and palm oil milling in Malaysia; Project Code: EP-2014-0014, “Assessment of Pond Productivity for Carp Fish Species in Rajshahi”. help, they should create these environments for themselves as well, by aligning Poverty alleviation is the main agenda o, whose income level falls below the minimum, decades. It. tangible, to increase their usefulness for the stakeholders involved. migration in Malaysia from 1911 to 2000. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. social innovation being sociable designers, who focus on being social rather than just INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA ASSIGNMENT RKGS 6100: VALUES, ETHICS & BUILT ENVIRONMENT DR. SPAHIC OMER NUR NABILA AHMAD AZAM G 1016160 RKGS 6100: VALUES, ETHICS AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT URBANIZATION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS At present, countries all over the world are facing with the same issues and problems concerning … Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, correlation tests were applied in data analysis. Pap., 5: 340-351. reimagination of the role of the designer in the process and a set of pragmatic The authors have declared that no competing interest exists. Malaysia, pp: 1-139. https://www.statistics.gov.my/, www.pmo.gov.my/dokumenattached/RMK/RMK8_MTR.pdf, 10124/2257e64f-b08d-41b7-bed0-b6e6498c38a3, Elhadary, Y.A.E. The community resiliency was presented through the contribution of urban agriculture as part of community preparedness, response, and recovery in short and long-term impacts. Res. The body of literature surrounding urban poverty is mostly on economics which lacks depth as it fails to capture the multidimensional nature of poverty. As part of a larger community survey, we studied the basic personal hygiene habits and sanitation status of a rural community to find out if practices in this rural community are acceptable.Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. was used as a framework for data collection, allowing stakeholders involved in these Bus. This statistic shows the degree of urbanization in Malaysia from 2009 to 2019. Ever since independence in 1957, Malaysia has successfully transformed itself from a poor country into a middle-income nation. We defined appropriate sanitation as proper disposal of garbage and having a sanitary toilet. Findings from this study provide evidences and enhance understanding in income poverty, well-being and correlates of both especially among vulnerable households. paradoxes of sustaining design and points social innovation initiatives. L㯀��[QMђ�x�]��˙XX���� dG��~�4g�c~|�P�����]���,����XvpAa�(E0T� m(��|@�������U����B������'C��YEeP�޳��3��i곟�+ f�8����k2/� ��yy�\���ח�E@0HM��k�(��|+� Urban poverty is inextricably linked to rural poverty. Interpreting Ethnicity and Urbanization in Malaysia’s 2013 General Election Abstract This paper reinterprets Ng, Rangel, Vaithilingam, and Pillay’s analysis of pro-BN voting in peninsular Malaysia in Malaysia’s 2013 General Election. that affected it, and reclassification of rural areas and agglomeration of built-up areas. The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia. The study also examines consequences of rapid urbanization and urban vulnerable group in the country. �ba �����. household poverty in Malaysia. This paper examined the impact of urbanization on economic growth in Nigeria using annual data over the period 1980 to 2016 and employing bounds testing approach to cointegration. J. Soc. This study identifies the elements of food security and explores the strategy for community resilience from urban agriculture perspectives among the vulnerable urban group. This study aims to assess the trends in urban poverty and urbanization in Malaysia during 1970-2012. The first theme highlights the disparity between how design and social innovation DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v5i14.2273. The paper aims to examine the income poverty status and compare it with the well-being level between different groups among vulnerable households. Most (94.3%) clean their homes daily. While urbanization in Malaysia is reaching an advanced phase in which there is a strong demand to take into account the environment, economic efficiency, and quality of life, the country has the knowledge and experience of companies from developed countries readily available. A paradigm shift is Chukwukere, O.A. ?����L�Fؔ-%��&{)�|��2�z;�� ��npS��M�l��ip�^����۲|�N��jҰ��oo(̖pK2Hn����u���{�\�!�M�� The questionnaire had 16 domains. Several studies compared poverty in rural and urban areas of, urban poverty, particularly assessing the i, urbanization and urban vulnerable group in the, considered hard-core poor if its income is less than food, household income as well as urbanization in the, statistics (viz., summation, mean, frequency and percentage), F ig ur e 1 s h ow s th e tr e nd s in p ov e rt y i n ci d en ce i n M a la ys i a, during the last three decades. can also definitely claim its success of combat against poverty. Most Indonesian migrant domestic workers do not know about process, procedures or their rights and possibilities to seek assistance when problems occur. housing, land and space, drugs, crime and social problems. Some older people tend to work as long as they are physically able, especially when support from family members is limited. In, Malaysia is a multi-ethnic religious country with a population of 28.5 million, it is characterised by mainly three ethnic groups-Malay and indigenous people, Chinese, and Indians. The authors (hereafter NRVP) use advanced statistical techniques to es-timate the relationships between ethnic population totals, urbanization, 2: Trends of household income in Malaysia (1970-2012), Table 2: Income disparity in rural and urban area in Malaysia (1970-2012), Mean monthly gross household income (MYR), ------------------------------------------------------------------------, MYR: Malaysian ringgit, Source: EPU (2012), substantially low in 1970s (on average, MYR 345, i nc om e of th e ur b an ho u se h ol d s i s mu c h h i gh e r (a l mo st t wi c e), (wage employment, self-employment and agriculture) and, followed a rising trend after 1970s. In terms of intergenerational support, older people who received support from their adult children more frequently were less likely to participate in the labour market than those who received no support. Political economy and urban. Urbanization in Malaysia and Potential of Social Innovation Business Introduction——Profi le of Malaysia Among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Malaysia has been recognized as a country with both political and economic stability. (2015) found strong causal links between urbanization and energy consumption in Malaysia. form the basis for recommendations to reposition design in social innovation practice, a and A.H. Baharuddin, 2012. Space, 8: 1-11. Particularly, the rate of poverty is still high in sev. Therefore, there is a possibility that the urbanization also have direct or indirect relation with Carbon dioxide emission. Evidence from Malaysia. Activity Theory A similar, pattern was observed in overall poverty incidence in the. Using data from the Fifth Malaysian Population and Family Survey 2014 (MPFS-5), this research investigates the relationship between intergenerational transfers, co-residence and labour participation among 4,059 older Malaysians aged 60 years and above. We focused our findings on 2 domain covering personal hygiene and sanitation. Geografia: Malaysian J. Soc. Constr. The findings indicate that, population of 10,000 or more; or a special development area, at least 60% of the population (aged 15 years and above) are, Fig. Water productivity of carp fish species in culturable ponds at Rajshahi district. In the early 1980s, Malaysia has 4 major urban cities located in developing states consists more than Keywords: urban poor livelihoods, Malaysia, systematic literature review, Sustainable Livelihood Approach. The third out the challenges and inherent 2. Malaysia has the fourth-largest amount of built-up land in East Asia as of 2010. It also contributes to signify the problems such, Excessive urban growth imposes the burden of employment. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Peninsular Malaysia from 1911 to 2000 Tarmiji Masron*, Usman Yaakub*, Fujimaki Masami** Abstract Urbanisation is a process of urban population growth, and it is growing rapidly in developing countries including Malaysia. As the poverty rate is much higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in Malaysia. Urbanization means the share of urban population in the total population of a country. Not only have urban units increased in number, the larger urban centres have expanded outwards to burst out of their gazetted boundaries, to sprawl into the open spaces into the rural area. Pembandaran di Malaysia: Peralihan daripada Kefungsian Hierarki kepada Kefungsian Berasaskan Jaringan Urbanization in Malaysia: Transition from Heirarchical Function to Network-based Function Shaharudin Idrus1*, Abdul Samad Hadi', Abdul Hadi Harman Shah', Ruslan Rainis2 'Institute of Environment and Development (LESTARI), most cases the decision to work abroad is made without being properly informed about what to expect. shift their efforts towards creating and nurturing meaningful social relations while Today, 62% (or 16 million) of all Malaysian live in towns and cities, a relatively high level of urbanization for a Third World country. The phenomenon of urbanization has become a topic in a changing environment. Appropriate communication plays in MicroInsurance Centre, New Independent State, Georgia. The second discusses the tensions surrounding the X_��0u���%ʾ�(�1�O?=�38L�=�KW�������>�9�7��o~c�����o����v��{8`-3�N���.^%��=y`�` Ar�W|�z��D}�M����W��q���z��~)q(�f�)]�ݴ3�;ۧov����ޜi��#�U���k���(އ� ����֔�D#��w���Fy?��r�`G�fb)�N�����_nv�oK׿�vX�_R�?��W�?ꂏ4�"Xe�Sd}��U���6�Y�����ap��J����+�@j�4��! The Authors. A binary logistic regression was used to identify the significant predictors of older Malaysians participating in the labour market after controlling for key demographic, health and socio-economic, geographical and intergenerational support variables. The study concludes that green spaces provision in a residential area act as a viable support system underlined the economic, social, and environment interaction. Policy Exchange, September 19, 2013, Beijing, China. Since then my moments of “engagement” with Malaysia have been brief although I … Surprisingly, co-residence was not a statistically significant factor. stream Geol., 4: 212-223. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the demographics and injury risks of MOH healthcare workers involved in traffic accident. A total of 286 households were conveniently selected. <> These findings help policymakers and local support groups in improving the current policies and to enhance the quality of life of the urban poor. The Indonesian government does not sufficiently protect its citizens. This concept paper has several objectives: A brief description of the country's nature of poverty, poverty reduction policies and programs, and an analysis facing the challenges and recommendations for a sustainable poverty reduction in Malaysia. Crime and Urbanization in Malaysia: Types and Cause “Crime affects all Malaysian, irrespective of race, religion, gender or income levels…†. Older people in rural areas were generally those with less income, lower educational attainment and lower healthcare utilisation, the latter of which resulted in more health problems compared to urban residents (Selvaratnam and Poo, 2007;Mohd Nor and Said, 2014;Barbosa et al., 2015). Int. 4! J. Geogr. Most (65.5%) clean toilets daily. This study aims to assess the trends in urban poverty and urbanization in Malaysia during 1970-2012. before and after Malaya achieved independence From results of this study, he found that rapidpopulation growth in urban areas of Malaysia occurred last nine decades especially during the 1980s and 1990s because the urbanization level in Malaysia rose about 18.4 percent from 1911 to 1970 and roe again However, rapid urbanization Econ., 24: 1524-1535. International Islamic University Malaysia 53100 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Email : ssyafiee@iiu.edu.my Phone : 603 20565280 Fax : 603 20564864 ABSTRACT Rapid urbanization during the 1970’s and 1980’s has shown greater impact to urban and housing development in Kuala Lumpur from the previous era. Main method of rubbish disposal is by burning. Urban agriculture is an initiative in overcoming the impact of food insecurity. Wrote PhD thesis on Sustainability Practices of Palm Oil Milling Sector in Peninsular Malaysia. This research has offered an insight into the complex relationship between working in later life and supporting one’s family among older people in Malaysia. KUALA LUMPUR: Malaysia will ensure public policies, including urban and regional plans, continue to serve economic growth while protecting natural and agricultural land use. 1. It was fou, in urban poverty during the last three decades. Malaysia. However, outcomes that are eventually produced should be Malaysia’s census report, urbanization increases from 25% I 1960 to 65% in 2005 and 3 quarters . The results showed that respondents who were older, female, and either married or widowed were less likely to participate in the labour market than their counterparts. Most (91.8%) shower at least twice daily and brush their teeth at least twice daily.Conclusions: This rural community practices appropriate personal hygiene in line with the cultural norms and they have good sanitation. designer’s role in social innovation. Urbanization in Northern Corridor Economic Region in Malaysia. environmental deterioration, pollution, congestion, effectiveness of specific programs as well as design and best. ... is a federation of thirteen states, eleven of which are located on the peninsular mainland and an additional two on the island of Borneo (Malaysian Investment Development Authority, 2019). This study employs a systematic literature review by three phases of identification, screening, and eligibility. were ups and downs in poverty incidence in each stratum. urbanization in Malaysia; these are: natural increase, rural-urban migration with the policies ! Urbanization is a continuous population concentration process in the city and metropolitan areas which plays an important role in the development and modernization of society (United Nations, 1987). initiatives in the Asia-Pacific region. is framed in academic discourse and how it is perceived by various groups of This statement quoted from YB Dato’ Seri Hishammuddin Tun Hussein, Minister of Home Affairs in his opening remarks of the chapter 6 on Reducing Crime in GTP Roadmap. Malaysian cities representing each region in Peninsular Malaysia. Investigating the link between urbanization growth and CO 2 emissions is necessary and helpful for Malaysia to achieve its pollution reduction targets. Malaysia has experienced spectacular urban spatial transformations from 1970 to 1997. urbanization causes vulnerability among the urban dwellers. These findings have important implications for Malaysian old age policy and its effort to promote productive ageing through employment opportunities, which can ensure continued independence in old age, while acknowledging the importance of family support on preserving the welfare of older people in Malaysia.

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